Frequently Asked Questions
How can I tell if a record is ready to be send to BOLD Systems and GenBank?
The first step is making sure all of the data elements have been added to a record the specimen data, the images, the trace files, and the sequence. Once all of the elements are present, you will need to verify their accuracy and quality. There are several components of a record that should be checked. Here is a list to help you can get started:
1. On the Specimen Page, check the image(s) and GPS coordinates uploaded to the record:
2. On the Sequence Page, check the quality of the sequence and compare the sequence in the record with the BOLD ID Engine
BOLD-SDP analysis tools, such as the Taxon ID tree, Collection Site Map, Alignment Browser, and Image Library allow you to compare all the records for the course at once. This is useful for detecting outliers in your dataset right away. For example, if all but one of th GPS coordinates for the samples collected in your course fall within the state California, there maybe an issue with the GPS coordinate for the one record outside the state, and it should be examined more closely.Back to Top
Does it matter if there are stop codons in the sequence?
A stop codon, by definition, is a short sequence (three nucleotides long) which signals the end of a sequence translation. In protein coding genes stop codons will not naturally occur in the middle of the sequence read because this would indicate to the messenger-RNA that the translation of nucleotides into amino acids is complete and it would result in a lot of functionless pieces of proteins.
COI, the mitochondrial gene used in DNA barcode of animals, is a protein coding gene used in cellular respiration and it should no have stop-codons present in the sequence.
Finding a stop codon in a sequence can be the result of many factors, most commonly it either involves an incorrect base calling from the original trace file or a shift in the reading frame of the sequence. It is important to try to fix stop codons before approving a record by confirming the base calling in the original trace file is correct and by re-running the sequence alignment. If rechecking these steps does not resolve the problem, the record can still be approved with the stop codon and it will be checked by an administrator.Back to Top
How can I grade my students?
On the Management Console it's easy to see student contributions by selecting Course Info beside the course listing. This gives you an overview of how many specimens, sequences, images, and traces each student has generated, which can help you gauge participation and can be useful in grading your students. In addition, the Activity Wall allows you to keep track of daily student activity and monitor the students' involvement in the project. You will be able to easily detect which students have been actively contributing data to the course and which students may be struggling through the process, and will need assistance.Back to Top
What should I do with a record that does not meet the approval standards?
If a record does not meet approval standards, the first step is to determine if any data element can be edited to correct the record for approval. For example, this may include having to re-shoot a photograph, or re-edit a sequence, or simply assisting a student upload a component they are having difficulty with. If a record cannot be edited to meet approval standards, it can be rejected from the Record Approval Queue.
It is important to note that all components of a rejected record will be deleted from the course dataset and all individual student contributions will be lost. Therefore rejecting a record should be the final resource.
Even records that do not meet international DNA barcoding standards can contain useful information. These records can stay in your class project and can even be used as teaching tools. Records with poor quality trace files, contaminated sequences, or even missing specimen data can all be used as examples to help students understand why it is important to create the highest quality records possible - one that includes specimen data, images, trace files, and sequences.Back to Top
What should I do once my students have uploaded all their data on BOLD-SDP?
Once your students have uploaded all their data, they can begin to use the tools built in to BOLD-SDP to analyze and study what they have collected.
Questions derived from DNA barcoding research can encompass a range of science and societal disciplines including ecology, genetics, molecular biology, conservation, and socio-economic issues. Several resources already exist to help guide you through your lesson plans and more information on how to use the BOLD-SDP tools and what questions can be answered can be found in the BOLD-SDP brochure.Back to Top
Why can't I add a co-instructor to my course?
Co-instructors will need to create an account on BOLD before you will be able to add them to your course(s). Students and co-instructors can be added from the Course Info pop-up on the Course Management page.
Co-instructors will have the same rights as the instructors and will be able to validate and approve records.Back to Top
What will happen to my project once a project is done?
If you are generating reference barcodes, once your project is done your records can be approved to be sent to BOLD Systems and ultimately GenBank. Once you approve the records generated by your students, BOLD-SDP administrators will have the opportunity to further scrutinize the records to ensure they meet the standards of the global DNA barcoding community. Following this, the records will be queued to be sent to GenBank. Once the records have been published in GenBank, your students will be able to see their record (with their name included) on GenBank and BOLD Systems where it may be used by professional scientists around the world.
If you are creating records to utilize BOLD's ID Engine features (for example, if you are conducting a fish market survey), your records do not have to be approved and sent to BOLD Systems - they can be analyzed and studied through BOLD-SDP and left in the class project once the students are done working with them.
Once your course is completed, you can Retire it from your Course Management console. The data will remain on BOLD-SDP and BOLD but the course will no longer appear on your Course Management console.Back to Top
What is the difference between a reference barcode and an investigative barcode?
DNA barcoding is a very powerful tool for species identification, but before any sequences can be identified there needs to be a database of reference sequences to compare them to. Reference barcodes make up this database, the BOLD DNA Barcode Reference Library. Reference barcodes are created from samples with well established taxonomic identifications such as those in museum collections.
Investigative barcode records are generated from samples with unknown or questionable taxonomic identifications, such as fish market samples or tea leaves. By comparing these sequences to those in the BOLD DNA Barcode Reference Library, identifications can be determined and confirmed.
If your class is creating reference barcodes, you will need to include as much specimen and collection information as possible and make sure that all your specimen and sequence data is accurate. These records will be referenced by other scientists to determine the identity of their samples, and if you have mistakes in your record, it can lead to serious data errors in the system.
On the other hand, if your class is creating investigative barcodes you will likely have less details about your sample, however it is still extremely important to include information about the restaurant or supermarket where your sample is coming from and when it was collected or purchased. This will help you interpret your results and determine the outcome of your experiment.Back to Top